Medical cannabis, or Medicinal Marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients. The use of Medicinal Marijuana as medicine has not been rigorously tested due to production restrictions and other governmental regulations. Limited evidence suggests cannabis can: reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and reduce chronic pain and muscle spasms.
Short-term use increases the risk of both minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations. Long-term effects of marijuana are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.
The marijuana plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. The use of Medicinal Marijuana is controversial. A number of medical organizations have requested removal of cannabis from the list of Schedule I controlled substances, followed by regulatory and scientific review. Others such as the American Academy of Pediatrics oppose the legalization of medical cannabis.
Medicinal Marijuana can be administered using a variety of methods, including liquid tinctures, vaporizing or smoking dried buds, eating cannabis edibles, taking capsules, using lozenges, dermal patches, or oral/dermal sprays. Synthetic cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in some countries; examples include: dronabinol and nabilone. Recreational use of cannabis is illegal in most parts of the world, but the medical use of cannabis is legal in a number of countries, some of which include Canada, Chile, Colombia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Peru, and Uruguay. Australia has passed laws to allow the use of marijuana for medical and scientific purposes in some states. In the United States, 29 states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation permitting the possession, use, and distribution of medical cannabis in some form.
Although cannabis remains prohibited for any use at the federal level, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was enacted in December 2014, limiting the ability of federal law to be enforced in states where medical cannabis has been legalized. Reciprocity still remains a contentious issue among states. There is, however, an increasing number of states who do accept an out-of-state medical marijuana authorization. They include, Arizona, Maine, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.